Electronic commerce


Trade across borders was once largely confined to business to business (B2B) transactions. Where disputes in the international market place arose which involved parties from different legal systems, conflicts of applicable law could be settled by reference to established rules of international private law (IPL). Rooted in legal theory these rules had long set guidelines for deciding which court or courts should have jurisdiction to hear the dispute, which law should be applied and how resulting court judgments should be recognized and enforced.